Flower Guide

Initially this guide displays common flowers of all colors that are blooming right now in our area. Use the selectors to view rare species, to view flowers blooming any time, to restrict the output to a certain color, or to search by name.

The Jemez Mountain Herbarium located at PEEC has a specimen collection of over 1,000 plant species that are found in the Jemez Mountain region. This guide was developed as a subset of this collection to help in the identification of the most prevalent flowering plants in Los Alamos County. Most of the plants shown here are native to the area, though a few were introduced to the region.

Monocot and both simple and composite flowering dicots are covered in this guide. This information is included in each description and potentially makes it easier to identify the different plants.

  • monocot – seed has 1 embryonic leaf; flower parts com in multiples of 3; leaves have parallel veins
  • dicot – seed has 1 embryonic leaves; flower parts com in multiples of 4 or 5; leaves have scattered veins
  • simple flower – single, symmetric flowers; usually 3 to 6 petals that emerge from the flower center
  • composite flower – multiple, tiny flowers arranged on a single base, typically rays around a disc; each tiny flower has its own seed

Most of the plants represented here are classified as forb/herb which are plants without significant woody growth. However, some flowering shrubs and trees have been included. Many of the later can also be found in the PEEC Tree Guide. This guide does not include any noxious weeds from the area. These are covered in the PEEC Invasive Plant Guide.

You can get additional information on local blooms by joining PEEC Wild Plants.  More detailed descriptions can be found in Plants of the Jemez Mountains Volumes 2 and 3, which are available in the PEEC gift shop.

Flower References

American Southwest Plants
Annotated Checklist and Database for Vascular Plants of the Jemez Mountains
Colorado Rocky Mountain Wildflowers
Flora of North America
Foxx, T., Martin, C., and Hoard, D., 2018 Plants of the Jemez Mountains Volume 2: Wildflowers: Showy Monocots and Common Dicots.
Foxx, T., Martin, C., and Hoard, D., 2019 Plants of the Jemez Mountains Volume 3: Composites.
eNature
Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center
National Garden Association
Native Plants Society of New Mexico
New Mexico Flora
Rocky Mountain Flora
Southwest Desert Flora
Wildflowers of the United States
US Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Services
US Forest Service

Subject Area Experts (all guides)

Steve Cary (butterflies)
Beth Cortright (insects)
Terry Foxx (invasive plants)
Leslie Hansen (mammals)
Richard Hansen (fish, mammals)
Dorothy Hoard (butterflies, trees)
Chick Keller (flowers, herbarium)
Shari Kelley (geology)
Kirt Kempter (geology)
Garth Tietjen (reptiles)
David Yeamans (birds)

Web Development and Content Management

Pat Bacha
Jennifer Macke
Graham Mark
Akkana Peck

Contact

Please contact us for local nature questions and sightings. We welcome comments, corrections, and additions to our guides.

For more information about local nature, please visit our Nature Blog or subscribe to PEEC This Week.

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Showing 75 of 179 flowers.
Red Elderberry

Photo: Chick Keller

Red Elderberry

Photo: Craig Martin

Red Elderberry

Photo: Jerry Oldenettel

Red Elderberry, Red Elder, Red-berried Elder

SARA2 (Sambucus racemosa)

Family: Adoxaceae (Moschatel)
Size: up to 240 in (610 cm)
Growth: shrub, tree; perennial
Blooms: May 09 - Jul 22

Flower: simple; white; dome-shaped clusters of many tiny flowers; fragrant
Leaf: dicot; opposite, pinnate-compound leaves with 5 to 7 leaflets
Fruit: clusters of bright to dark red berries; seeds distributed by birds and mammals

Status: native; locally common
Habitat: mixed conifer --- woodland, wet meadow, prairie, field
Typical location: Pajarito Canyon second crossing

This plant is typically seen as a low-growing, shredding shrub. It sprouts from the root crown and/or rhizomes. The berries attract and are readily consumed by wildlife. In contrast, due to their sour taste, they and not usually eaten raw by humans but may used in the preparation of wine, jelly, and pies.

Info    Photos   Distribution   Tree Guide
Alpine False Springparsley

Photo: Chick Keller

Alpine False Springparsley

Photo: Terry Foxx

Alpine False Springparsley, Mountain Parsley

PSMO (Pseudocymopterus montanus, Cymopterus lemmonii)

Family: Apiaceae (Carrots)
Size: 12 - 20 in (30 - 51 cm)
Growth: forb/herb; perennial
Blooms: Apr 24 - Aug 15

Flower: simple; yellow; fan arrangement, round and flat topped on the tip of a long flowering stalk
Leaf: dicot; very variable in leaf shape and size
Fruit: oblong capsules with well-developed lateral wings and 2 seeds

Status: native; common
Habitat: mixed conifer, ponderosa --- foothills, montane, subalpine, woodlands, meadows
Typical location: Valle Canyon

The size and morphology of this plant depends on the elevation at which it is growing. It was originally classified in the genus Cymopterus or “waved wing” for which it is a close look alike. It is now classified as Pseudocymopterus or “False Cymopterus”. The roots and leaves of this plant have used as a food source by some Native Americans.

Info    Photos   Distribution   
Antelope Horn Milkweed

Photo: Stan Shebs

Antelope Horn Milkweed

Photo: Chick Keller

Antelope Horn Milkweed

Photo: Jerry Oldenettel

Antelope Horn Milkweed, Spider Milkweed, Green-flowered Milkweed

ASAS (Asclepias asperula)

Family: Apocynoideae (Dogbanes)
Size: 12 - 24 in (30 - 61 cm)
Growth: forb/herb; perennial
Blooms: May 27 - Jul 19

Flower: simple; green and white; spherical flower clusters
Leaf: dicot; lanceolate; open, airy network in alternate arrangement
Fruit: growing seed follicles resemble antelope horns

Status: native; uncommon
Habitat: pinyon-juniper, ponderosa --- semi-desert, foothills, woodlands, openings, washes

Plant can have either an upright or a sprawling habit. Stems are covered with minute hairs.

Info    Photos   Distribution   
Golden Draba

Photo: Chick Keller

Golden Draba

Photo: Craig Martin

Golden Draba, Golden Whitlowgrass

DRAU (Draba aurea)

Family: Arabideae (Mustards)
Size: up to 8 in (20 cm)
Growth: forb/herb; perennial
Blooms: Jun 11 - Oct 31

Flower: simple; yellow; individual small flowers with 4 oblong petals with 4 sepals; compact flowerhead with up to 50 flowers
Leaf: dicot; smooth-edged or toothed; very hairy; grow as a rosette at the base and along the stems
Fruit: purplish green, hairy pods that are angled upwards

Status: native; uncommon
Habitat: mixed conifer --- montane, alpine, subalpine, meadows, woodlands
Typical location: Canada Bonita Trail

The Golden Draba was named by Martin Vahl in 1806 from a specimen collected in Greenland. The native range of this plant covers Arizona and New Mexico north through all of Canada and includes Alaska and Greenland. Plants in the genus Draba are commonly known as whitlow-grasses. However, they are not related to true grasses.

Info    Photos   Distribution   
Feathery False Lily of the Valley

Photo: Chick Keller

Feathery False Lily of the Valley

Photo: Christina M. Selby

Feathery False Lily of the Valley

Photo: Ilja Fescenko

Feathery False Lily of the Valley, Feathery False Solomon's Seal

MARA7 (Maianthemum racemosum)

Family: Asparagaceae (Asparagus)
Size: up to 5 in (13 cm)
Growth: forb/herb; perennial
Blooms: May 24 - Jun 30

Flower: simple; white; branched pyramid-shaped cluster at the end of the stem
Leaf: monocot; lance-shaped with pointed tips; most are stalkless
Fruit: green berries that turn dull red and then bright red

Status: native; uncommon
Habitat: mixed conifer --- montane, subalpine, woodlands
Typical location: Valle Canyon

This “False Solomon’s Seal” is distinguished from the “True Solomon’s Seals” by the flowers which are located at the end of the stem for the former and below the leaves along the stem for the latter. It is a shade-loving plant.

Info    Photos   Distribution   
Banana Yucca

Photo: Parker Hopkins

Banana Yucca

Photo: Yvonne Keller

Banana Yucca

Photo: John Brew

Banana Yucca, Broad Leave Yucca

YUBA (Yucca baccata)

Family: Asparagaceae (Asparagus)
Size: 36 - 60 in (91 - 152 cm)
Growth: forb/herb, subshrub; perennial
Blooms: Apr 23 - Jun 23

Flower: simple; white tinged with red; large cluster hanging from a single, tall stem
Leaf: monocot; sword-shaped; thick and rigid; spine-tipped
Fruit: green to dark purple; banana-like in shape

Status: native; common
Habitat: pinyon-juniper --- semi-desert, foothills, woodlands, canyons, openings
Typical location: Deer Trap Mesa

This is the New Mexico state flower. The leaves were used for cord, the roots for soap, and the flower and fruit for food.

Info    Photos   Distribution   
Navajo Yucca

Photo: Patrick Alexander

Navajo Yucca

Photo: Craig Martin

Navajo Yucca

Photo: CW Wood

Navajo Yucca

YUBAN (Yucca baileyi, Yucca navajoa)

Family: Asparagaceae (Asparagus)
Size: up to 72 in (183 cm)
Growth: forb/herb, subshrub; perennial
Blooms: May 19 - Jun 26

Flower: simple; white with purplish; grown on the end of very tall stalk
Leaf: monocot; evergreen; long, thin, pointed leaves
Fruit: large white to brown pod

Status: native; common
Habitat: pinyon-juniper --- mountains, adjacent woodlands and grasslands
Typical location: Canyon Rim Trail paved section

Yucca baileyi is quite similar to several other species of yucca in the area but can be distinguished by its tendency to grow in tight colonies at higher elevations than other yuccas. Fibers used for making various items. The roots can be used to make soap.

Info    Photos   Distribution   
Common Yarrow

Photo: Chick Keller

Common Yarrow

Photo: Craig Martin

Common Yarrow, Western Yarrow, Milfoil

ACMI2 (Achillea millefolium)

Family: Asteraceae (Daisies)
Size: up to 20 in (51 cm)
Growth: forb/herb; perennial
Blooms: Jun 08 - Sep 10

Flower: composite; white with yellow center; flat-topped or dome-shaped flowerhead clusters; long lasting
Leaf: dicot; long leaflets in an alternate arrangement; further leaflet divisions give fern-like appearance; strong spicy aroma
Fruit: capsules with thick margins and no hairs

Status: naturalized plant; common
Habitat: ponderosa --- semi-desert, foothills, montane, subalpine, meadows, woodlands, shrublands

The Common Yarrow was introduced into North America from Europe and Asia during colonial times. It has since been naturalized throughout the US. It is a common cultivar and can be seen in gardens in a range of colors including reds and yellows. The genus Achillea was named for Achilles who treated soldiers’s wound during the Trojan War. In fact, Common Yarrow has a variety of medicinal uses including the treatment of wounds, burns, colds, fevers, and headaches. It has even been made into a beer.

Info    Photos   Distribution   
Lyreleaf Greeneyes

Photo: Kathy Gillespie

Lyreleaf Greeneyes


Lyreleaf Greeneyes

Photo: Ellen Hildebrand

Lyreleaf Greeneyes, Chocolate Flower, Chocolate Daisy

BELY (Berlandiera lyrata, Berlandiera incisa)

Family: Asteraceae (Daisies)
Size: 12 - 24 in (30 - 61 cm)
Growth: forb/herb; perennial
Blooms: May 03 - Sep 30

Flower: composite; yellow rays with brown centers and green cup-like bracts; rays have red veins on reverse side
Leaf: dicot; gray-green; pinnate, deeply-lobed leaves with lyre-shaped curves; velvety
Fruit: cup-like seedheads

Status: native; uncommon
Habitat: pinyon-juniper --- dry, well-drained sites, sandy or rocky soils, roadsides, grasslands with mesquite, oak, and juniper
Typical location: Red Dot Trail near bottom

The common name of lyreleaf greeneyes comes from the shape of the leaf and the green eye-like disc left after the ray florets drop off. The "chocolate" scent of the flower is responsible for its other common names. In addition, the stamens are edible and have a chocolate flavor. The plant seems to disappear when it freezes but the roots are alive and will remain dormant until spring.

Info    Photos   Distribution   
Rose Heath

Photo: Chick Keller

Rose Heath

Photo: Jerry Oldenettel

Rose Heath

Photo: Ellen Hildebrandt

Rose Heath, Sand Aster, Smallflower Aster

CHER2 (Chaetopappa ericoides)

Family: Asteraceae (Daisies)
Size: 2 - 5 in (5 - 13 cm)
Growth: forb/herb, subshrub; perennial
Blooms: May 19 - Jun 19

Flower: composite; white; small radiate flowerheads; single head on a stem; immature flowers have pink tinge
Leaf: dicot; green; small and sparse; alternative spacing; may have bristles on edges
Fruit: numerous small, flattened, hairy fruit is tipped with numerous minute, white, barbed bristles

Status: native; locally common
Habitat: pinyon-juniper --- semi-desert, shrublands, open areas
Typical location: Deer Trap Mesa

This plant grows in clumps with many, woody and hairy stems. Flower petals commonly curl downward in the evening and straighten with morning. An infusion made from the whole plant was used for rheumatism.

Info    Photos   Distribution   
Trailing Fleabane

Photo: Susan Punjabi

Trailing Fleabane

Photo: Chick Keller

Trailing Fleabane, Whiplash Daisy

ERFL (Erigeron flagellaris)

Family: Asteraceae (Daisies)
Size: up to 8 in (20 cm)
Growth: forb/herb; biennial
Blooms: May 30 - Oct 31

Flower: composite; white and yellow with blush of pink; as many as 125 white ray florets; numerous yellow disc florets
Leaf: dicot; light green; narrow; numerous arranged in clusters
Fruit: tufted single seeds

Status: native; common
Habitat: mixed conifer, ponderosa --- foothills, montane, subalpine, meadows
Typical location: Water Canyon

Plant sends out runners along the surface of the ground to colonize large areas., forming extensive mats of clones. Tied bunches of plants used for brooms. Leaves used as a medicine and fumigant.

Info    Photos   Distribution   
Running Fleabane

Photo: Chick Keller

Running Fleabane

Photo: Dan Beckman

Running Fleabane, Running Daisy, Tracy's Fleabane

ERCO28 (Erigeron tracyi, Erigeron colomexicanus )

Family: Asteraceae (Daisies)
Size: 6 - 12 in (15 - 30 cm)
Growth: forb/herb; biennial
Blooms: Feb 01 - Dec 01

Flower: composite; white with yellow center, may have purple color on edges; a single flowerhead per stem made up of 100 ray florets and over 200 disc florets
Leaf: dicot; basal leaves close together and wider toward the tip; stem leaves few and narrow; hairy
Fruit: archenes topped with bristles

Status: native; common
Habitat: pinyon-juniper --- foothills, open areas, and woods
Typical location: Red Dot Trail

Spreads via runners during summer and fall. Similar in overall appearance to Spreading Fleabane but has runner similar to Whiplash Daisy.

Info    Photos   Distribution   
Indian Blanket

Photo: Craig Martin

Indian Blanket

Photo: Akkana Peck

Indian Blanket

Photo: Jerry Oldenettel

Indian Blanket, Firewheel, Indian Blanketflower, Sundance

GAPU (Gaillardia pulchella)

Family: Asteraceae (Daisies)
Size: 18 - 24 in (46 - 61 cm)
Growth: forb/herb, subshrub; annual, biennial, perennial
Blooms: May 05 - Oct 15

Flower: composite; ray florets red to orange at base with yellow tips; sometimes all yellow or orange; disc florets are reddish-brown
Leaf: dicot; alternate arrangement; long, wide and toothed
Fruit: seedhead with pyramid-shaped cypselae and multiple hairs and scales

Status: native; common
Habitat: disturbed soil, pinyon-juniper --- roadsides, meadows, dry plains, open areas
Typical location: White Rock

This is a hardy plant, tolerating heat and dryness. Many varieties are popular for cultivation providing a showy splash of color to the garden. The plant is favored by honeybees and produces a dark reddish buttery tasting honey. It also attracts butterflies. The roots can be used to make a tea.

Info    Photos   Distribution   
Curlycup Gumweed

Photo: Becky Shankland

Curlycup Gumweed

Photo: Craig Martin

Curlycup Gumweed, Curly-cup Gumweed, Rosinweed, Tarweed

GRSQ (Grindelia squarrosa)

Family: Asteraceae (Daisies)
Size: 3 - 36 in (8 - 91 cm)
Growth: forb/herb; annual, biennial, perennial
Blooms: Jun 01 - Oct 10

Flower: composite; yellow; daisy-like, medium sized multiple heads with many disc florets but with or without ray florets; “curlycup” comes from distinctive recurved bracts that enclose the flowerheads
Leaf: dicot; green to gray-green linear leaves; margins smooth or toothed
Fruit: short whitish to brown or gray capsules

Status: native; uncommon
Habitat: disturbed soil --- Road edges, especially in White Rock.
Typical location: White Rock

The plant, including the flower heads, produces a sticky, gummy resin; thus the origin of many of its common names. Curlycup Gumweed concentrates selenium giving it a very bitter taste and making it toxic to mammals. This plant is being studies as a potential source of biofuel to to its high content of several terpene compounds that can be converted to a fuel analogues to kerosene. It is an attractive plant for this use since it would not compete for areas used for traditional food crops.

Info    Photos   Distribution   Weed Guide
Fendler's Ragwort

Photo: Chick Keller

Fendler's Ragwort

Photo: Craig Martin

Fendler's Ragwort, Fendler's Groundsel, Notchleaf Senecio

PAFE4 (Packera fendleri, Senecio fendleri)

Family: Asteraceae (Daisies)
Size: 4 - 16 in (10 - 41 cm)
Growth: forb/herb; perennial
Blooms: May 30 - Aug 18

Flower: composite; yellow ray and disc florets; 6 to 8 ray florets
Leaf: dicot; deeply notched almost to mid-rib; hairy; grow mostly at the base
Fruit: tufted single seeds

Status: native; common
Habitat: mixed conifer, ponderosa --- slopes, dry rocky or gravelly soils, along streams, open forests, disturbed sites
Typical location: Valle Canyon

The plant is abundant at a variety of elevations and habitats, so much so that it almost seems like a weed in some areas. It’s hairy stems were used by the Navajo for a variety of medicinal uses.

Info    Photos   Distribution   
New Mexico Groundsel

Photo: Chick Keller

New Mexico Groundsel

Photo: Dan Beckman

New Mexico Groundsel

PANEN (Packera neomexicana, Senecio neomexicanus)

Family: Asteraceae (Daisies)
Size: 12 - 24 in (30 - 61 cm)
Growth: forb/herb, subshrub; perennial
Blooms: Mar 09 - Jul 10

Flower: composite; yellow; 5 to 14 ray florets around 40 or more disc florets; clusters of between 3 and 20 flowerheads
Leaf: dicot; wider at the tip than base; may have teeth and hairs; mostly located around the base
Fruit: white puffs of hairs attached to seeds similar to dandelions

Status: native; common
Habitat: ponderosa --- foothills, montane, subalpine, woodlands, openings
Typical location: Perimeter Trail to Water Canyon

Plants are often crowded together with an unusual abundance of flowers for each plant. Plants can often be fairly variable.

Info    Photos   Distribution   
Wooton's Ragwort

Photo: Chick Keller

Wooton's Ragwort

Photo: Craig Martin

Wooton's Ragwort, Wooton's Senecio

SEWO (Senecio wootonii)

Family: Asteraceae (Daisies)
Size: up to 24 in (61 cm)
Growth: forb/herb, subshrub; perennial
Blooms: Apr 01 - Jun 18

Flower: composite; yellow; on stems with few leaves terminating in a flowerhead; one long petal per flowerhead
Leaf: dicot; have small teeth and long stalks with wings
Fruit: achenes, ribbed and hairless

Status: native; common
Habitat: ponderosa --- montane, woodlands, openings
Typical location: Quemazon Trail

When flower buds first appear they seem to only have disk flowers but the ray flowers appear with time. Plants in full sun bear a large number of flowers.

Info    Photos   Distribution   
Thrift Mock Goldenweed

Photo: Akkana Peck

Thrift Mock Goldenweed

Photo: Akkana Peck

Thrift Mock Goldenweed, Thrifty Goldenweed, Ring Grass Sunflower

STAR10 (Stenotus armerioides)

Family: Asteraceae (Daisies)
Size: up to 10 in (25 cm)
Growth: forb/herb; perennial
Blooms: Apr 30 - Jun 30

Flower: composite; yellow; 5 to 15 rays with 20 to 40 disc florets
Leaf: dicot; presents as a mixture of old, dried leaves and bright green, thin, vertical leaves
Fruit: capsule covered with fine silky hairs

Status: native; locally common
Habitat: pinyon-juniper --- open wooded areas
Typical location: Deer Trap Mesa

Look for the shiny, sticky-looking (but not actually sticky) base beneath the flower (the penuncle). The common name of Ring Grass Sunflower comes from the plant’s circular growth pattern. As the plants age, they grow outward in a ring with the inner parts dying off.

Info    Photos   Distribution   
Perkysue

Photo: Chick Keller

Perkysue

Photo: Craig Martin

Perkysue, Perky Sue

TEAR4 (Tetraneuris argentea, Hymenoxys argentea )

Family: Asteraceae (Daisies)
Size: up to 15 in (38 cm)
Growth: forb/herb; perennial
Blooms: Apr 01 - Aug 15

Flower: composite; yellow; found on the top of long leafless stalks; a dozen or so notched ray florets stick out very straight from the central disc florets
Leaf: dicot; fuzzy silver leaves
Fruit: achenes topped with scales

Status: native; common
Habitat: pinyon-juniper, ponderosa --- niches in solid rock areas
Typical location: Lower Quemazon Trail

Hearty plant that is the earliest blooming yellow daisy. Has been used heartburn and in a lotion for eczema.

Info    Photos   Distribution   
Stiff Greenthread

Photo: Chick Keller

Stiff Greenthread

Photo: Terry Foxx

Stiff Greenthread, Hopi Tea

THFI (Thelesperma filifolium)

Family: Asteraceae (Daisies)
Size: 4 - 16 in (10 - 41 cm)
Growth: forb/herb; annual
Blooms: May 01 - Oct 30

Flower: composite; yellow ray flowers; reddish disc florets;
Leaf: dicot; thin green leaves that are thread-like scattered along the stems
Fruit: capsules with tufted hairs

Status: native; common
Habitat: disturbed soil --- dry hills and plains
Typical location: Canyon Rim Trail paved section east end parking

When budding, the flower heads droop but stand upright when open. The plant is used to make an herbal tea and is currently cultivated on the Colorado Plateau in New Mexico for this purpose. The seeds are eaten by some birds and the plant is larval food for the sulphur butterfly.

Info    Photos   Distribution   
Yellow Salsify

Photo: Brandt Magic

Yellow Salsify

Photo: Don Lorie

Yellow Salsify

Photo: Chuck Sexton

Yellow Salsify, Western Salsify, Oyster Plant, Goatsbeard

TRDU (Tragopogon dubius)

Family: Asteraceae (Daisies)
Size: 12 - 24 in (30 - 61 cm)
Growth: forb/herb; annual, biennial
Blooms: May 19 - Sep 10

Flower: composite; yellow; single terminal flowerhead on a long stalk; outer florets have 5 small teeth at tip
Leaf: dicot; basal and along the stems; grass-like but wider with pointed tips
Fruit: long, thin brown seeds with a whitish beak attached a fluffy tannish-white seed head

Status: naturalized plant; common
Habitat: disturbed soil --- foothills, montane, openings, woodlands, fields

Yellow Salsify was introduced from Europe and is naturalized across most of the United States. It is thought that it was brought into the country because the taproot is edible, tasting a bit like oysters. It is considered to be an invasive weed in many areas but has little economic impact. Overall, it is similar to a dandelion but much larger.

Info    Photos   Distribution   Weed Guide
Spiny Goldenweed

Photo: Chick Keller

Spiny Goldenweed

Photo: Patrick Alexander

Spiny Goldenweed

Photo: Patrick Alexander

Spiny Goldenweed, Lacy Tansyaster, Cutleaf Goldenweed, Lacy Sleepy Daisy, Wooly Goldenweed

MAPI (Xanthisma spinulosum, Machaeranthera pinnatifida)

Family: Asteraceae (Daisies)
Size: 10 - 20 in (25 - 51 cm)
Growth: forb/herb, subshrub; perennial
Blooms: Jun 11 - Aug 02

Flower: composite; bright yellow; 16+ florets with numerous disc florets; flowerheads can be singular or in small clusters on the tips of stiff branches
Leaf: dicot; silvery green; thin and deeply lobed with dense white hairs/spines
Fruit: whitish tan, hairy, ovoid capsules

Status: native; common
Habitat: pinyon-juniper --- semi-desert, open areas, hillsides
Typical location: Red Dot Trail

Spiny Goldenweed is a highly variable plant. Last years’s flowers are often present until the new ones appear. It may be a small plant but it spreads rapids so that it can blanket large areas up to several acres in yellow flowers. Xanthisma spinulosum is an interesting scientifically as it is the species with the lowest number of chromosomes of any plant investigated so far, with only 4 chromosomes.

Info    Photos   Distribution   
Fendler's Barberry

Photo: Chick Keller

Fendler's Barberry

Photo: Terry Foxx

Fendler's Barberry, Colorado Barberry

BEFE (Berberis fendleri)

Family: Berberidaceae (Barberries)
Size: 40 - 80 in (102 - 203 cm)
Growth: shrub; perennial
Blooms: May 19 - Jun 22

Flower: simple; yellow; grows in clusters with 15 flowers each
Leaf: dicot; simple, green spoon-shaped leaves
Fruit: red, juicy, oblong fruit

Status: native; locally common
Habitat: ponderosa --- slopes and canyon bottoms at lower elevations

This shrub has spiny stems and grows in colonies. Like other barberries, the fruit is edible and has antibacterial properties, used for enteric infections.

Info    Photos   Distribution   
James' Cryptantha

Photo: Chick Keller

James' Cryptantha

Photo: Craig Martin

James' Cryptantha, James' Hiddenflower, James' Catseye

CRCIJ (Cryptantha cinerea, Oreocarya suffruticosa)

Family: Boraginaceae (Borages)
Size: up to 4 in (10 cm)
Growth: forb/herb, subshrub; perennial
Blooms: Apr 15 - Sep 10

Flower: simple; white with yellow corolla tube; dozen of clusters per plant that elongate with age
Leaf: dicot; narrow, linear leaves; sparse hairs
Fruit: four identical smooth nutlets

Status: native; uncommon
Habitat: pinyon-juniper, ponderosa --- open areas, semi-desert
Typical location: Anniversary Trail

One of the most shrub-like of the genus with many branches and bristly hairs. Found in open areas below 8,000 ft (2,400 m).

Info    Photos   Distribution   
Manyflowered Stoneseed

Photo: Chick Keller

Manyflowered Stoneseed

Photo: Jerry Oldenettel

Manyflowered Stoneseed, Yellow Puccoon, Manyflowered Groomwell

LIMU3 (Lithospermum multiflorum)

Family: Boraginaceae (Borages)
Size: 12 - 24 in (30 - 61 cm)
Growth: forb/herb; perennial
Blooms: May 19 - Aug 02

Flower: simple; yellow; trumpet-shaped with 5 lobes
Leaf: dicot; narrow; close together; slightly toothed; alternative arrangement
Fruit: white, shiny nutlets

Status: native; common
Habitat: ponderosa --- montane, subalpine, woodlands, openings

This plant grows in clumps. The upper half is branched with numerous flower clusters. The roots and seeds have been used by some Native American tribes.

Info    Photos   Distribution   
Crossflower

Photo: Rebecca Shankland

Crossflower

Photo: J.N. Stuart

Crossflower, Blue Mustard, Purple Mustard

CHTE2 (Chorispora tenella)

Family: Brassicaceae (Mustards)
Size: 6 - 24 in (15 - 61 cm)
Growth: forb/herb; annual
Blooms: Mar 24 - Jun 19

Flower: simple; blue to purple; 4 petals; borne on racemes
Leaf: dicot; grey-green; wavy-edged with teeth
Fruit: long pods that curve upward; reddish brown seeds

Status: naturalized plant; locally common
Habitat: disturbed soil --- semi-deserts, foothills, fields, woodlands
Typical location: White Rock

This plant originated in Europe and Asia but was introduced in the US long ago. It is classified as a noxious weed in many areas due to its ability to take over open fields in the early spring. Has a strong musky odor.

Info    Photos   Distribution   
Sanddune Wallflower

Photo: Mike Anderson

Sanddune Wallflower

Photo: Chick Keller

Sanddune Wallflower

Photo: Dan Rideout

Sanddune Wallflower, Western Wallflower, Wallflower, Prairie Rocket

ERCA14 (Erysimum capitatum)

Family: Brassicaceae (Mustards)
Size: 12 - 24 in (30 - 61 cm)
Growth: forb/herb; biennial, perennial
Blooms: Apr 15 - Jul 12

Flower: simple; yellow though may show as orange in some areas;4 flat petals; dense, rounded flower cluster on the top of the plant
Leaf: dicot; long, thin leaves; rosette at the bottom of the plant;
Fruit: narrow and nearly vertical seed pods

Status: native; locally common
Habitat: mixed conifer --- semi-desert to alpine, woodlands, meadows

A highly variable species, often one of the first flowers in spring. The plant grows in a small group, often scattered over a large area.

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Tree Cholla

Photo: Akkana Peck

Tree Cholla

Photo: Akkana Peck

Tree Cholla, Walking Stick Cholla, Cane Cholla

CYIM2 (Cylindropuntia imbricata)

Family: Cactaceae (Cacti)
Size: up to 120 in (305 cm)
Growth: shrub, tree; perennial
Blooms: Jun 01 - Jul 31

Flower: simple; pink; large and numerous; flowers are borne on a specific type of stem
Leaf: dicot; leaves have been reduced to thick spines that numerous along the main branches
Fruit: yellow and spineless; persists throughout winter

Status: native; locally common
Habitat: pinyon-juniper --- open areas, scrub
Typical location: White Rock Canyon

The plant’s woody skeleton is often used to make walking sticks, hence the common names. This attractive cactus does not flower every year, but can be spectacular when it does flower. The fruit is edible but is not commonly eaten.

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Scarlet Hedgehog Cactus

Photo: J. Howell

Scarlet Hedgehog Cactus

Photo: Akkana Peck

Scarlet Hedgehog Cactus, Claret Cup Cactus

ECCOC (Echinocereus coccineus)

Family: Cactaceae (Cacti)
Size: up to 16 in (41 cm)
Growth: shrub; perennial
Blooms: Apr 20 - Jun 22

Flower: simple; red with green stigma; rounded petals
Leaf: dicot; leaves replaced by spines
Fruit: greenish or yellowish to pinkish

Status: native; uncommon
Habitat: pinyon-juniper --- semi-desert, woodlands, openings

The plant grows in sprawling clusters (potentially up to 100 members) with low-to-medium spine cover and somewhat flabby stems.

Info    Photos   Distribution   
Pinkflower Hedgehog Cactus

Photo: Peter Alexander

Pinkflower Hedgehog Cactus

Photo: Peter Alexander

Pinkflower Hedgehog Cactus, Fendler's Hedgehog Cactus

ECFE (Echinocereus fendleri)

Family: Cactaceae (Cacti)
Size: 4 - 12 in (10 - 30 cm)
Growth: shrub; perennial
Blooms: May 25 - Jun 15

Flower: simple; shades of pink with yellow anthers and green stigma; flowers are borne below the apex of the stem
Leaf: dicot; white and black; one central spine and 4 to 10 radial spines
Fruit: red, round and spiny; edible

Status: native; uncommon
Habitat: pinyon-juniper --- dry slopes and in rocky areas in semidesert areas
Typical location: White Rock

It is a low growing, scrubby cactus, that grows alone or in small clumps with 5 to 20 stems. It is relatively inconspicuous and easy to overlook until it blooms as its showy, short-lived flowers are hard to miss.

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Kingcup Cactus

Photo: Chick Keller

Kingcup Cactus

Photo: CK Kelly

Kingcup Cactus

Photo: Alex Abair

Kingcup Cactus, Claret Cup, Mojave Mound

ECTR (Echinocereus triglochidiatus)

Family: Cactaceae (Cacti)
Size: 6 - 9 in (15 - 23 cm)
Growth: shrub; perennial
Blooms: May 15 - Jun 15

Flower: simple; red; funnel-shaped; grow at the top of stems, all at about the same height
Leaf: dicot; densely spiny and somewhat woolly
Fruit: exterior densely spiny and somewhat woolly with white pulp; juicy with spines; edible

Status: native; uncommon
Habitat: pinyon-juniper --- low desert to rocky slopes, scrub, mountain woodland
Typical location: White Rock

The Kingcup is a mounding cactus, forming rounded piles of a few to hundreds of spherical to cylindrical stems. It is related to the Scarlet Hedgehog but has much fewer spines. It is the most wide-spread of the Echiniocereus genius and the most variable in appearance. The flowers are pollinated by hummingbirds.

Info    Photos   Distribution   
Nylon Hedgehog Cactus

Photo: Chick Keller

Nylon Hedgehog Cactus

Photo: Craig Martin

Nylon Hedgehog Cactus, Green-Flowered Hedgehog, Small-Flowered Hedgehog, Green Pitaya

ECVI2 (Echinocereus viridiflorus)

Family: Cactaceae (Cacti)
Size: up to 6 in (15 cm)
Growth: shrub; perennial
Blooms: Jun 01 - Jun 30

Flower: simple; yellowish green; tubular; may have maroon stripes; delicate petal tips
Leaf: dicot; spines are variable in color; short and numerous
Fruit: variably colored fruit with white pulp

Status: native; uncommon
Habitat: grassland, scrubland --- desert scrub, woodlands, dry grasslands
Typical location: White Rock, White Rock Canyon

The plant is relatively easy to overlook. It consists of short, most unbranched, cylinders that form small clusters with a dozen or so members.

Info    Photos   Distribution   
Spinystar

Photo: Jerry Oldenettel

Spinystar

Photo: Akkana Peck

Spinystar, Pincushion Cactus, Beehive Cactus

ESVI2 (Escobaria vivipara, Coryphantha vivapara)

Family: Cactaceae (Cacti)
Size: up to 6 in (15 cm)
Growth: shrub; perennial
Blooms: Apr 15 - Jun 15

Flower: simple; pink; arise from tubercles at the top of the plant; conspicuously fringed
Leaf: dicot; up to 40 white radial spines and several darker, central spines pointing outwards at various angles
Fruit: green, ovoid fruits that turn dull brownish red; juicy

Status: native; uncommon
Habitat: pinyon-juniper --- dry valleys, foothills, grasslands

A favorite as an ornamental in nurseries, this cactus can be found at elevations up to 8,800 ft (2,700 m) as a single plant or small cluster of 20 or more stems. It was a common food source, roasted or boiled, for some Native American cultures.

Info    Photos   Distribution   
Tulip Prickly Pear Cactus

Photo: Akkana Peck

Tulip Prickly Pear Cactus

Photo: Craig Martin

Tulip Prickly Pear Cactus

Photo: Matthew Salkiewicz

Tulip Prickly Pear Cactus, Desert Prickly Pear, Brown-spined Pricklypear, Dark-spined Prickly Pear

OPPH (Opuntia phaeacantha)

Family: Cactaceae (Cacti)
Size: 4 - 10 in (10 - 25 cm)
Growth: shrub; perennial
Blooms: May 20 - Aug 01

Flower: simple; yellow, orange, or pink; very large and open wide
Leaf: dicot; clusters of 8 or fewer thick white or brown central spines; may have no spines on the base of the pads
Fruit: reddish purple fruits with green flesh

Status: native; common
Habitat: disturbed soil, open area, scrubland --- grasslands, pine-juniper,scrub
Typical location: Red Dot Trail

Our most common species of prickly pear. It is highly variable and is prone to hybridize with other species. The fruit is edible and can sometimes be found in the markets. It is often used to flavor lemonade and margaritas. During dry periods the dark green pads may take on a purplish tinge.

Info    Photos   Distribution   
Plains Prickly Pear Cactus

Photo: Barbara Calef

Plains Prickly Pear Cactus

Photo: Yvonne Keller

Plains Prickly Pear Cactus

Photo: Donna Pomeroy

Plains Prickly Pear Cactus, Hairspine Pricklypear, Starvation Prickly Pear

OPPO (Opuntia polyacantha)

Family: Cactaceae (Cacti)
Size: 4 - 10 in (10 - 25 cm)
Growth: shrub; perennial
Blooms: May 25 - Jul 05

Flower: simple; yellow or orange, and sometimes pink;
Leaf: dicot; closely spaced clusters of spines that vary in color but are usually short and dense
Fruit: tan to brown; almost burr-like

Status: native; common
Habitat: pinyon-juniper --- semi-desert, foothills, open areas
Typical location: Burnt Mesa Trail, Red Dot Trail

The plant is grows very close to the ground forming a spreading mat that is often partially covered by soil or grass and leaves. It is common to see semi-circular chunks taken out of the pads caused by animals nibbling on them.

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Twinberry Honeysuckle

Photo: Russel Pfau

Twinberry Honeysuckle

Photo: Alison Young

Twinberry Honeysuckle

Photo: Barbara Calef

Twinberry Honeysuckle, Bush Honeysuckle, Inkberry, Black Twinberry, Bearberry Honeysuckle, Four-line Honeysuckle

LOIN5 (Lonicera involucrata)

Family: Caprifoliaceae (Honeysuckles)
Size: 45 - 300 in (114 - 762 cm)
Growth: shrub; perennial
Blooms: May 01 - Jul 31

Flower: simple; yellow with red; tubular paired flowers; sweetly scented and nectar-producing
Leaf: dicot; elliptic to lance-shaped; opposite orientation
Fruit: dark, shiny, purplish berries; surrounded by green woolly bracts that turn deep red with time

Status: native; common
Habitat: garden, mountain meadow, stream --- moist areas at forest openings and meadow edges at high altitude --- 7,000-10,000 ft (2,000 to 3,000 m)
Typical location: East Fork of Jemez River, Frijoles Canyon

Like other honeysuckles, this plant is often used as a garden ornamental. Its flowers attract hummingbirds and birds feed on the fruits. The berries are juicy but intensely bitter and potentially toxic for human consumption. However, they have been used as a dye source.

Info    Photos   Distribution   
Field Chickweed

Photo: Chick Keller

Field Chickweed

Photo: Craig Martin

Field Chickweed, Chickweed, Mouse-ear Chickweed

CEAR4 (Cerastium arvense)

Family: Caryophyllaceae (Pinks)
Size: 12 - 16 in (30 - 41 cm)
Growth: forb/herb; perennial
Blooms: May 09 - Jul 12

Flower: simple; white; 5 petals, deeply notched into 2 lobes; open clusters
Leaf: dicot; lance-linear; opposite; toothless
Fruit: capsule; narrowly cylindrical and slightly curved

Status: native; common
Habitat: mixed conifer --- montane, subalpine, meadows
Typical location: Valle Canyon

A plant that grows from a taproot or systems of rhizomes. It can grow in various forms --- mat, clump, creeper or upright.

Info    Photos   Distribution   
Red Osier Dogwood

Photo: Rod

Red Osier Dogwood

Photo: Craig Martin

Red Osier Dogwood

Photo: Ellen Hildebrandt

Red Osier Dogwood, Red Twig Dogwood

COSE16 (Cornus sericea)

Family: Cornaceae (Dogwoods)
Size: 36 - 120 in (91 - 305 cm)
Growth: shrub, tree; perennial
Blooms: May 20 - Jul 14

Flower: simple; white; arranged in flat-topped clusters; fragrant; 4 stamens and 4 petals
Leaf: dicot; simple and oblong; opposite arrangement; lighter green underneath
Fruit: white berries; may be tinged with blue

Status: native; uncommon
Habitat: riparian --- found in wet canyons not too far from a stream
Typical location: Pajarito Canyon second crossing

Red Osier Dogwood is a multi-stemmed shrub with branches radiating from the base. Smaller branches and twigs are dark red, though plants in shaded areas may lack this coloration. Butterflies and other pollinators are attracted to the flowers. Birds will consume the berries.

Info    Photos   Distribution   Tree Guide
Nevada Peavine

Photo: scottmo

Nevada Peavine

Photo: Craig Martin

Nevada Peavine

Photo: Craig Martin

Nevada Peavine, White Peavine, Arizona Peavine

LALAL3 (Lathyrus lanszwertii var. leucanthus)

Family: Fabaceae (Peas)
Size: 12 - 24 in (30 - 61 cm)
Growth: forb/herb, vine; perennial
Blooms: May 30 - Oct 25

Flower: simple; white with a small mount of pink; grow in clusters from long flower stalks
Leaf: dicot; two types of leaves: elliptical (higher elevation) versus narrow, linear (lower elevation)
Fruit: boat-shaped pod

Status: native; uncommon
Habitat: ponderosa --- montane, subalpine, woodlands
Typical location: Canada Bonita Trail, Valle Canyon

Grows from 4,000 ft (1.2 km) to timberline with elevation influencing leaf shape. Like other legumes, fixes nitrogen.

Info    Photos   Distribution   
New Mexico Locust

Photo: Patrick Alexander

New Mexico Locust

Photo: Craig Martin

New Mexico Locust

Photo: James Bailey

New Mexico Locust, Mescal Bean

RONE (Robinia neomexicana)

Family: Fabaceae (Peas)
Size: up to 300 in (762 cm)
Growth: shrub, tree; perennial
Blooms: May 07 - Jul 22

Flower: simple; pink-to-purple; pea-shaped and fragrant; clusters hang from the branches near the ends
Leaf: dicot; oblong leaflets arranged on either side of the stem with thorns at the base
Fruit: hairy, bean-like pods; pods and seeds will persist for some time

Status: native; common
Habitat: ponderosa --- deserts, mesa, canyons, conifer forests

This many-branched, thicket-forming shrub has reddish-purple branches. Although a true locust, it does not have the invasive characteristics of other species. The New Mexico is sometimes used as an ornamental. Pueblo Native Americans traditionally ate the raw flowers, while the foliage and seeds are eaten by wildlife.

Info    Photos   Distribution   Tree Guide
American Vetch

Photo: Chick Keller

American Vetch

Photo: Craig Martin

American Vetch

Photo: Walter Siegmund

American Vetch

VIAM (Vicia americana)

Family: Fabaceae (Peas)
Size: 6 - 30 in (15 - 76 cm)
Growth: forb/herb, vine; perennial
Blooms: May 27 - Sep 22

Flower: simple; purple; arranged in loose clusters
Leaf: dicot; pinnate; alternate arrangement
Fruit: oblong, flattened pod that hands down

Status: native; common
Habitat: ponderosa --- foothills, montane, subalpine, woodlands, meadows

A slender, climbing plant with tendrils that can attach to other vegetation or structures. Nitrogen fixer.

Info    Photos   Distribution   
Redstem Stork's Bill

Photo: Craig Martin

Redstem Stork's Bill

Photo: Craig Martin

Redstem Stork's Bill

Photo: Craig Martin

Redstem Stork's Bill, Redstem Filaree, Pinweed, Cranesbill

ERCI6 (Erodium cicutarium)

Family: Geraniacea (Geraniums)
Size: 6 - 12 in (15 - 30 cm)
Growth: forb/herb; annual, biennial
Blooms: Jan 02 - Dec 30

Flower: simple; pink, often with dark spots; arranged in loose clusters with 10 filaments
Leaf: dicot; deeply cleft; fern-like
Fruit: long, narrow, pointed seed pods

Status: naturalized plant; common
Habitat: disturbed soil --- desert scrub, grasslands, oak woodlands, semi-desert grassland, lawns, gardens; more common at lower elevations

It was introduced into California from the Mediterranean Basin in the eighteenth century. The entire plant is edible and resembles a parsley when picked young. It is considered to be a weed in some areas.

Info    Photos   Distribution   Weed Guide
Pineywoods Geranium

Photo: Chick Keller

Pineywoods Geranium

Photo: Craig Martin

Pineywoods Geranium

Photo: ajileong5

Pineywoods Geranium, Purple Geranium

GECA3 (Geranium caespitosum)

Family: Geraniaceae (Geraniums)
Size: up to 18 in (46 cm)
Growth: forb/herb, subshrub; perennial
Blooms: Jun 01 - Oct 20

Flower: simple; pink or purple; 5 elliptic to obovate petals; dark veins
Leaf: dicot; deep cuts and 5 to 7 rounded lobes; lined with large teeth
Fruit: long thin capsule with 1 seed

Status: native; common
Habitat: ponderosa --- foothills, montane, subalpine, woodlands
Typical location: Valle Canyon

Each plant only has a few flowers and tends to lean and sprawl. Can be seen trailside hidden by grasses with its reddish, short-hairy stems. Parts of the plant have been used as an astringent and to treat sores.

Info    Photos   Distribution   
Richardson's Geranium

Photo: Chick Keller

Richardson's Geranium

Photo: Jerry Oldenettel

Richardson's Geranium, White Cranesbill

GERI (Geranium richardsonii)

Family: Geraniaceae (Geraniums)
Size: 8 - 32 in (20 - 81 cm)
Growth: forb/herb; perennial
Blooms: Jun 01 - Oct 20

Flower: simple; white or purple with dark purple veins; 5 septals and 5 pointed petals
Leaf: dicot; palmate-shaped with 5 segments
Fruit: small, straight body with a short style

Status: native; common
Habitat: mixed conifer --- foothills, montane, subalpine, woodlands, meadows
Typical location: Canada Bonita Trail

This geranium is found just below tree line. Its size is sensitive to the amount of moisture it receives. It grows from a tough, woody taproot and will develop rhizomes as it ages.

Info    Photos   Distribution   
Fivepetal Cliffbush

Photo: Chick Keller

Fivepetal Cliffbush

Photo: Chick Keller

Fivepetal Cliffbush, Five-petal Cliffbush, Waxflower

JAAM (Jamesia americana)

Family: Hydrangeaceae (Hydrangeas)
Size: 36 - 72 in (91 - 183 cm)
Growth: shrub; perennial
Blooms: Jun 11 - Jul 22

Flower: simple; white to pink; 4 or 5 petals; produced in erect branching clusters
Leaf: dicot; broadly oval and coarsely-toothed; opposite arrangement
Fruit: dry capsule with numerous small seeds

Status: native; common
Habitat: mixed conifer, ponderosa --- grows in mountainous areas in the range of 5400 - 9800 ft (1600 – 3000 m)
Typical location: Kinnikinnick Park

The genus Jamesia contains the last two species of shrubby plants in the hydrangea family surviving in the US. The genus is named for Edwin James who was the first non-native explorer to climb to the top of Pike’s Peak and described over a 100 new species. Jamesia americana is the more common of the two species and is noted for shreddy, gray to reddish-brown bark and numerous flowers.

Info    Photos   Distribution   
Rocky Mountain Iris

Photo: Craig Martin

Rocky Mountain Iris

Photo: Chick Keller

Rocky Mountain Iris

Photo: sea-kangaroo

Rocky Mountain Iris, Western Blue Flag Iris, Paria Iris

IRMI (Iris missouriensis)

Family: Iridaceae (Irises)
Size: 12 - 36 in (30 - 91 cm)
Growth: forb/herb; perennial
Blooms: May 30 - Jul 19

Flower: simple; blue to purple, rarely white; deeply veined; petals upright and spread out; usually only 2 or 3 per plant
Leaf: monocot; stiff, very long, light green leaves with some white at the base
Fruit: seedpods upright, large and chunky

Status: native; common
Habitat: montane --- foothills, subalpine, wetlands, meadows, openings
Typical location: Canada Bonita

Often found in large patches in meadows and mountain foothills but grows as a solitary plant in woods. Considered a nuisance in pasture land due to its bitter taste and grazing only promotes further growth. The Zuni used the chewed root as a poultice for newborns.

Info    Photos   Distribution   
Sego Lily

Photo: Craig Martin

Sego Lily

Photo: Jerry Oldenettel

Sego Lily, Nuttall's Mariposa

CANU3 (Calochortus nuttallii)

Family: Liliaceae (Lilies)
Size: 6 - 18 in (15 - 46 cm)
Growth: forb/herb; perennial
Blooms: May 15 - Jun 30

Flower: simple; white with yellow base and red ring; sometimes pink or tinged with pink; 1 to 3 showy tulip-like flowers
Leaf: monocot; curved and grasslike; alternate arrangement
Fruit: upright, lance-shaped capsules

Status: native; common
Habitat: canyon, grassland, scrubland --- sandy soils, hot dry areas at up to 8,000 ft (2,500 m) elevations
Typical location: Red Dot Trail, Ancho Canyon

The common name for this plant (Sego) comes from the Shoshonean word for “edible”. The bulbs can be dried for use in winter, eaten raw, or roasted. The flowers have been used ceremonially.

Info    Photos   Distribution   
Starry False Lily of the Valley

Photo: Chick Keller

Starry False Lily of the Valley

Photo: Jerry Oldenettel

Starry False Lily of the Valley

Photo: Sheri

Starry False Lily of the Valley, Starry False Solomon's Seal

MAST4 (Maianthemum stellatum, Smilacina stellata)

Family: Liliaceae (Lilies)
Size: 12 - 24 in (30 - 61 cm)
Growth: forb/herb; perennial
Blooms: Jun 01 - Jun 30

Flower: simple; white; tiny star-like;small clusters at the tip of the stem
Leaf: monocot; lance-shaped with smooth edges; slightly folded inward; alternative spacing
Fruit: seed capsules turning yellow and then red

Status: native; locally common
Habitat: mixed conifer --- montane, subalpine, woodlands

Thrives in moist locations. Starry False Lilly of the Valley has lateral underground roots from which new plants can sprout leading to colonies of plants. The fruits and leaves are eaten by bears.

Info    Photos   Distribution   
Western Blue Flax

Photo: Chick Keller

Western Blue Flax

Photo: Craig Martin

Western Blue Flax

Photo: hikingsandiego

Western Blue Flax, Lewis Flax, Prairie Flax

LILE3 (Linum lewisii)

Family: Linaceae (Flax)
Size: 18 - 20 in (46 - 51 cm)
Growth: forb/herb, subshrub; perennial
Blooms: May 19 - Aug 18

Flower: simple; blue or purple; darker veins; 5 petals
Leaf: dicot; narrow long leaves; bristle at top
Fruit: sphericl to elliptical capsule; spits open on the top

Status: native; uncommon
Habitat: ponderosa --- foothills, montane, subalpine, woodlands, openings, meadows
Typical location: Lower Quemazon Trail

This flax has long slender stems that often bend over as buds develop. The buds will open at sunrise and stay open only part of the day.

Info    Photos   Distribution   
Adonis Blazingstar

Photo: Becky Shankland

Adonis Blazingstar

Photo: Jerry Oldenettel

Adonis Blazingstar

Photo: Alex Abair

Adonis Blazingstar, Stickleaf, Manyflowered Blazingstar

MEMU3 (Mentzelia multiflora)

Family: Loasaceae (Blazingstar/Stickleaf)
Size: 24 - 30 in (61 - 76 cm)
Growth: forb/herb; biennial, perennial
Blooms: Jun 01 - Aug 31

Flower: simple; yellow or white with yellow center; 5 petals and 5 septa’s; long, outer rows of stamens resembling petals
Leaf: dicot; bright green; long, narrow and lobed; covered in short, hooked hairs; sticky
Fruit: greenish cup-shaped capsules; seeds oval with wing

Status: native; uncommon
Habitat: disturbed soil

The Adonis Bazingstar has several distinctive features that make it relatively easy to recognize. It tall with whitish, multi branched stems. The lower surface of the leaves adheres tightly to clothing. The flowers open in the afternoon and are closed during the following morning.

Info    Photos   Distribution   
Scarlet Globemallow

Photo: Jerry Oldenettel

Scarlet Globemallow

Photo: Akkana Peck

Scarlet Globemallow, Caliche Globemallow, Cowboy's Delight

SPCO (Sphaeralcea coccinea)

Family: Malvaceae (Mallows)
Size: 4 - 16 in (10 - 41 cm)
Growth: forb/herb, subshrub; biennial, perennial
Blooms: Apr 22 - Oct 15

Flower: simple; red to orange; overall saucer-shaped; 5 notched, broad petals in a terminal cluster
Leaf: dicot; palm-like leaves covered in a soft, velvet layer of hair
Fruit: schizocarp with up to 14 single-seeded carpels

Status: native; common
Habitat: pinyon-juniper --- semi-desert, foothills, disturbed areas, woodlands
Typical location: Red Dot Trail

The Scarlet Globemallow spreads by rhizomes and may lean over or stay close to the ground since its stems are not sturdy. It is covered in dense hairs. Deer and other wildlife will graze on the plant, while birds and small animals eat the fruit.

Info    Photos   Distribution   
Tufted Evening Primrose

Photo: Craig Martin

Tufted Evening Primrose

Photo: Barbara Calef

Tufted Evening Primrose, Fragarent Evening Primrose, Gumbo Evening Primrose

OECA10 (Oenothera caespitosa)

Family: Onagraceae (Evening Primroses)
Size: up to 8 in (20 cm)
Growth: forb/herb, subshrub; perennial
Blooms: Mar 27 - Jul 17

Flower: simple; white; 4 petals that are deeply notched at tip; flowers become pink as they age
Leaf: dicot; long, thin, lobed leaves; irregularly lobed or toothed
Fruit: rough seedpods; inconspicuous

Status: native; uncommon
Habitat: pinyon-juniper --- foothills, montane, woodlands, openings
Typical location: Anniversary Trail

Spreads by underground roots and often forms large colonies. Flowers open with the evening and wither to pink by the next afternoon. Dependent on hawkmoths for pollination.

Info    Photos   Distribution   
Wholeleaf Indian Paintbrush

Photo: Craig Martin

Wholeleaf Indian Paintbrush

Photo: Craig Martin

Wholeleaf Indian Paintbrush, Squawfleather, Southwestern Indian Paintbrush, Cola de Borrejo

CAIN14 (Castilleja integra)

Family: Orobanchaceae (Broomrapes)
Size: up to 16 in (41 cm)
Growth: forb/herb, subshrub; perennial
Blooms: Apr 18 - Oct 20

Flower: simple; Red or orange specialized leaves or bracts form on spikes; flowers are a small green tubes protruding above the bracts
Leaf: dicot; Narrow, unlobed, undivided; tinges of light purple on some
Fruit: capsule filled with numerous seed

Status: native; common
Habitat: pinyon-juniper --- foothills, montane, shrublands, woodlands
Typical location: Canyon Rim Trail paved section, Quemazon Trail

The common name "wholeleaf" refers to the lack of lobes on the leaves and bracts. The plant’s roots will grow and penetrate those of other plants in order to obtain nutrients. The stems of the plant have white hairs. The Zuni used to mix the roots with minerals to make a black dye.

Info    Photos   Distribution   
Scrambled Eggs

Photo: Rebecca Shankland

Scrambled Eggs

Photo: Craig Martin

Scrambled Eggs

Photo: Craig Martin

Scrambled Eggs, Golden Smoke, Golden Corydalis

COAU2 (Corydalis aurea)

Family: Papaveraceae (Poppies)
Size: up to 18 in (46 cm)
Growth: forb/herb; annual, biennial
Blooms: Apr 01 - Aug 18

Flower: simple; yellow; spur at the back of each flower; form tightly packed clusters with up to 30 flowers
Leaf: dicot; blue-green leaves divided into leaflets with oval or diamond lobes
Fruit: cylindrical capsules; curve upward

Status: native; common
Habitat: mixed conifer, pinyon-juniper, ponderosa --- montane, subalpine, woodlands
Typical location: Valle Canyon

Often mistaken for a pea rather than a poppy. The stems are weak and are often supported by vegetation or rocks.

Info    Photos   Distribution   
Beardlip Penstemon

Photo: Russell Pfau

Beardlip Penstemon

Photo: Nathan Taylor

Beardlip Penstemon, Red Beardtongue, Scarlet Bugler

PEBA2 (Penstemon barbatus)

Family: Plantaginaceae (Speedwells)
Size: 24 - 36 in (61 - 91 cm)
Growth: forb/herb; perennial
Blooms: Jun 08 - Oct 31

Flower: simple; red; tubular flowers with two lips; lower lip divided into 3 lobes and bent backwards; flowers dropped slightly; arranged in pairs
Leaf: dicot; slender, long linear to oval; less frequent on the upper stems
Fruit: capsules that split open longitudinally to release several brown seeds

Status: native; common
Habitat: ponderosa --- open, rocky soil in mixed conifer forests
Typical location: Dot Grant Trail

Penstemon barbatus is one of the few red flowered penstemons. It gets its species name from ‘barbatus’ meaning bearded which is an allusion to the hairs into the throat of the flower. The leaves and stems may have a pale whitish covering. The plant has been used ceremonially, as a decoration, and for treatment of a variety of issues.

Info    Photos   Distribution   
Firecracker Penstemon

Photo: Lonny Holmes

Firecracker Penstemon

Photo: M Hays

Firecracker Penstemon, Eaton's Penstemom, Eaton's Firecracker

PEEA (Penstemon eatonii)

Family: Plantaginaceae (Speedwells)
Size: 15 - 39 in (38 - 99 cm)
Growth: forb/herb; perennial
Blooms: Apr 30 - Jun 30

Flower: simple; red; showy tubular flowers that do not spread much at the mouth; 2-lipped; flowers grow along spikes
Leaf: dicot; thick, smooth and without teeth; basal leaves are oval; stalk leaves are lance-shaped;
Fruit: greenish capsule

Status: native; common
Habitat: scrub, pinyon/juniper woodland, pine forest

Firecracker Penstemons are most commonly seen in opening between Pinyon Pines. It thrives in drought conditions and high heat. The flowers are a rich source of nectar and therefore attract numerous hummingbirds. The birds will often defend a territory over a patch of these plants.

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James' Penstemon

Photo: Stephen Shankland

James' Penstemon

Photo: Stephen Shankland

James' Penstemon, James' Beardtongue

PEJA (Penstemon jamesii)

Family: Plantaginaceae (Speedwells)
Size: 4 - 20 in (10 - 51 cm)
Growth: forb/herb, subshrub; perennial
Blooms: May 20 - Jun 18

Flower: simple; pink to purple; growing down one side of the stem; broad throat with prominent streaks
Leaf: dicot; bluish-green; lance-shaped; may have toothed edges
Fruit: brown capsule that split open to reveal black seeds

Status: native; uncommon
Habitat: pinyon-juniper, ponderosa --- mesas, limestone hills, pinyon-juniper and ponderosa pine forests
Typical location: White Rock

This plant is very drought tolerant and can be propagated by seed or by cuttings taken in early summer. It attracts bees.

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Sidebells Penstemon

Photo: Chick Keller

Sidebells Penstemon

Photo: Craig Martin

Sidebells Penstemon, One-sided Penstemon, Sidebells Beardtongue

PESE11 (Penstemon secundiflorus)

Family: Plantaginaceae (Speedwells)
Size: 12 - 18 in (30 - 46 cm)
Growth: forb/herb; perennial
Blooms: May 04 - Jun 18

Flower: simple; pink to purple with white throat; occasionally all white; lower lip bearded; long spikes of flowers located on one side of stem.
Leaf: dicot; blue-green; lance-shaped; hairless
Fruit: oval capsule

Status: native; locally common
Habitat: mixed conifer --- plains, foothills, montane
Typical location: Quemazon Trail

The plant is distinguished by a rosette of leaves at its base and erect leaves on the stem. Hummingbirds are attracted to the flowers.

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Upright Blue Beardtongue

Photo: Jerry Friedman

Upright Blue Beardtongue

Photo: Patrick Alexander

Upright Blue Beardtongue, Upright Blue Penstemon, Wandbloom Penstemon

PEVI4 (Penstemon virgatus)

Family: Plantaginaceae (Speedwells)
Size: 8 - 24 in (20 - 61 cm)
Growth: forb/herb; perennial
Blooms: Jun 01 - Jul 31

Flower: simple; purple and/or white; 5-lobed corolla; throat streaked with dark purple guidelines
Leaf: dicot; thin and long; occasionally bent upwards on either side
Fruit: capsules that release short, dark brown seeds when split open

Status: native; locally common
Habitat: ponderosa --- pine forests, mountain meadows
Typical location: Dot Grant Trail, Guaje Pines Cemetery

Upright Blue Beardtongue is exclusively found in the wild at elevations above 5,000 ft (1,500 m). Its genus comes from “peane” (Latin) and “stamen” (Greek), meaning almost thread and alluding to the single sterile stamen in each flower. The roots have been used ceremonially by Navajo. The plant is of special value to native bees.

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Pygmyflower Rockjasmine

Photo: Craig Martin

Pygmyflower Rockjasmine

Photo: Craig Martin

Pygmyflower Rockjasmine

Photo: Christina M. Selby

Pygmyflower Rockjasmine, Rock Jasmine, RockJasmine, Northern Fairy Candelabra

ANSE4 (Androsace septentrionalis)

Family: Primulaceae (Primroses)
Size: 6 - 10 in (15 - 25 cm)
Growth: forb/herb; annual, perennial
Blooms: Mar 19 - Sep 01

Flower: simple; white with yellow center; enclosed by a green or reddish calyx; 5 petals
Leaf: dicot; simple leaves formed in a rosette
Fruit: small, smooth, round capsule containing about 20 seeds

Status: native; common
Habitat: mixed conifer, ponderosa --- foothills, montane, subalpine, meadows, open woods

Tiny plant often obscured by others. It turns shades of red shortly after finishing blooming. Can be found up to 11,000 ft (3,400 m).

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Red Baneberry

Photo: Craig Martin

Red Baneberry

Photo: Chick Keller

Red Baneberry

Photo: Corrie Clinton

Red Baneberry, Snakeberry

ACRU2 (Actaea rubra)

Family: Ranunculaceae (Buttercups)
Size: up to 36 in (91 cm)
Growth: forb/herb; perennial
Blooms: May 24 - Jun 30

Flower: simple; small and white; occur in dense, globular clusters
Leaf: dicot; large, highly divided leaves; deeply saw-toothed
Fruit: bright, red round berries

Status: native; common
Habitat: mixed conifer --- rich, moist, deciduous and coniferous woods, thickets
Typical location: Valle Canyon

Large bushy plant. Berries are poisonous to humans but not to birds.

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Western Red Columbine

Photo: Yvonne Keller

Western Red Columbine

Photo: Jerry Oldenettel

Western Red Columbine, Rocky Mountain Red Columbine

AQEL (Aquilegia elegantula)

Family: Ranunculaceae (Buttercups)
Size: 6 - 12 in (15 - 30 cm)
Growth: forb/herb; perennial
Blooms: May 07 - Jul 14

Flower: simple; red and yellow; 5 long petals ending in spurs; often drooping
Leaf: dicot; divided into three leaflets on long, slender stems
Fruit: follicles with long, slender beaks

Status: native; common
Habitat: mixed conifer --- limestone outcroppings and ledges

This plant can be seen at high elevations on rocky slopes. The red flowers attract hummingbirds.

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Eastern Pasqueflower

Photo: Christina M. Selby

Eastern Pasqueflower

Photo: Chick Keller

Eastern Pasqueflower

Photo: Chick Keller

Eastern Pasqueflower, American Pasqueflower

PUPA5 (Pulsatilla patens, Anemone patens)

Family: Ranunculaceae (Buttercups)
Size: 3 - 18 in (8 - 46 cm)
Growth: forb/herb; perennial
Blooms: Mar 16 - Jun 19

Flower: simple; blue, purple and/or white; single cup-shaped flower on each stalk; 6 petals
Leaf: dicot; deeply cut basal leaves; 3 unstalked leaves with linear segments surround each flower
Fruit: feathery, silky fruiting head

Status: native; common
Habitat: ponderosa --- dry, open, and rocky low to high montane forests and meadows
Typical location: Pajarito Trail, Perimeter Trail, Rendija Canyon

Plants often occur in large colonies. They elongate as they mature. Although the plant was used by Native Americans as a medicine it is highly toxic.

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Graceful Buttercup

Photo: Chick Keller

Graceful Buttercup

Photo: Craig Martin

Graceful Buttercup

Photo: faerthen

Graceful Buttercup, Plain Buttercup

RAIN (Ranunculus inamoenus)

Family: Ranunculaceae (Buttercups)
Size: up to 12 in (30 cm)
Growth: forb/herb; perennial
Blooms: May 09 - Aug 27

Flower: simple; yellow; 5 petals; yellow stamens surrounding by greenish pistils; 3 to 7 flowers on a stem
Leaf: dicot; ovate with 3 lobes; potential notch on the outer pair
Fruit: long cylindrical heads with multiple one-seeded bumps; short hairs; tiny beak

Status: native; uncommon
Habitat: mixed conifer --- montane, subalpine, woodlands, meadows
Typical location: Water Canyon

This is a small, inconspicuous, and dainty plant with a species name that means "not attractive" or "drab". The plant is only indirectly pollinated by bees. The bees leave a large amount of pollen on the petals which is then washed down onto the stigmas by dew and rain.

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Fendler's Meadow Rue

Photo: Christina M. Selby

male flower

Photo: male flower by Lonny Holmes

female flower

Photo: female flower by Gail

Fendler's Meadow Rue , Meadowrue

THFE (Thalictrum fendleri)

Family: Ranunculaceae (Buttercups)
Size: 36 - 72 in (91 - 183 cm)
Growth: forb/herb; perennial
Blooms: Jun 11 - Aug 02

Flower: simple; separate male and female flowers; tassel-like stamens without petals in green to yellow (male), spiky flowers becoming pink as they mature (female); arching branched cluster of flowers
Leaf: dicot; compound blades divided into segments of varying shapes, often with 3 lobes
Fruit: female flowers have clusters of immature fruits that develop into hard, black stubs

Status: native; common
Habitat: mixed conifer --- foothills, montane, subalpine, woodlands, meadows
Typical location: Canada Bonita Trail

Fendler's Meadow Rue is very delicate and often overlooked. The stems are hairless and green to purple in color. The leaves unfold in swirls from a small globe. The male and female flowers of the plant are usually located on separate plants. The flowers are pollinated by wind.

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Fendler's Ceanothus

Photo:

Fendler's Ceanothus

Photo: Chick Keller

Fendler's Ceanothus

Photo: Ken -ichi Ueda

Fendler's Ceanothus, Buckbrush, Fendler's Whitethorn

CEFE (Ceanothus fendleri)

Family: Rhamnaceae (Buckthorns)
Size: up to 36 in (91 cm)
Growth: shrub; perennial
Blooms: May 19 - Jul 17

Flower: simple; white; form clusters at the end of the stems; all flowers bloom at once
Leaf: dicot; narrow dark green leaves; alternate arrangement
Fruit: three-celled capsules; pink and glossy; forming a rounded triangle

Status: native; common
Habitat: ponderosa --- open coniferous forest

Thorny shrub that can be either upright or low and sprawling. There are usually several plants found together in the same place.

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Apache Plume

Photo: Chick Keller

Apache Plume

Photo: Craig Martin

Apache Plume

Photo: Josip Loncaric

Apache Plume, Ponil

FAPA (Fallugia paradoxa)

Family: Rosaceae (Roses)
Size: 24 - 72 in (61 - 183 cm)
Growth: shrub; perennial
Blooms: Jun 06 - Oct 31

Flower: simple; white flowers on the tips of very dense, intertangle branches; 5 petals
Leaf: dicot; dark green with silver underneath
Fruit: persistent, pink, feathery plumes said to resemble an Apache headdress

Status: native; common
Habitat: pinyon-juniper, ponderosa --- dry, rocky slopes, open woods, dry washes

This multi-branched shrub is deciduous to semi-evergreen with a slender and upright habit.

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Old Man's Whiskers

Photo: Craig Martin

Old Man's Whiskers

Photo: Craig Martin

Old Man's Whiskers

Photo: morel hunter

Old Man's Whiskers, Prairie Smoke, Purple Avens

GETR (Geum triflorum)

Family: Rosaceae (Roses)
Size: 6 - 15 in (15 - 38 cm)
Growth: forb/herb; perennial
Blooms: May 24 - Jul 03

Flower: simple; white petals with pink and mostly covered with pink sepals; arranged in clusters of 3 to 5 flowers; nod downwards and mostly closed and bud-like
Leaf: dicot; divided leaves with 7 to 17 primary leaflets; may have secondary leaflets in between
Fruit: feathery seed pods

Status: native; uncommon
Habitat: montane --- subalpine, meadows
Typical location: Canada Bonita

Old Man's Whiskers is semi-evergreen with some of the basal leaves turning purplish and remaining over winter. The flowers attract bees with both nectar and pollen, the later is dislodged by using a sound technique known as buzz-pollinating.

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Mountain Ninebark

Photo: Chick Keller

Mountain Ninebark

Photo: Jerry Oldenettel

Mountain Ninebark

Photo: Matt Lavin

Mountain Ninebark

PHMO4 (Physocarpus monogynus)

Family: Rosaceae (Roses)
Size: 72 - 84 in (183 - 213 cm)
Growth: shrub; perennial
Blooms: May 19 - Jul 17

Flower: simple; white tinged with pink; 5 petals arranged in a cup-like structure; overall appear in rounded clusters
Leaf: dicot; simple, palmately lobed; alternate arrangement; turn red in the fall
Fruit: pointed follicles arranged in upright hemispherical clusters; initially red and then turning reddish brown

Status: native; common
Habitat: mixed conifer, ponderosa --- rocky, dry hillsides
Typical location: Rendija Canyon

Plants in the genus Phtsocarpus are known as “ninebark” due to its distinguishing feature of ragged peeling bark revealing several layers and colors. Mountain Ninebark is found at elevations between 5,500 and 10,000 ft (1,700 and 3,000 m). The roots have been used by Native Americans in a pain-relieving poultice, while the twigs are food for wildlife.

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Chokecherry

Photo: Chick Keller

Chokecherry

Photo: Jennifer Macke

Chokecherry

Photo: Jerry Oldenettel

Chokecherry, Bitterberry, Western Chokecherry

PRVI (Prunus virginiana)

Family: Rosaceae (Roses)
Size: 72 - 240 in (183 - 610 cm)
Growth: shrub, tree; perennial
Blooms: May 07 - Jun 19

Flower: simple; white with yellow centers; arranged in dense clusters
Leaf: dicot; dark-green above and gray-green beneath; elliptic to obovate with sharply toothed margins
Fruit: red berries ripening to dark purple

Status: native; common
Habitat: mixed conifer --- fields, mountains, along fresh water
Typical location: Valle Canyon

Chokecherries form dense thickets and are important as a wildlife food plant as well as providing protected habitat. The chokecherry is very tart raw but cooking it allows it to be made into a good jelly.

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Prairie Rose

Photo: Chick Keller

Prairie Rose

Photo: Craig Martin

Prairie Rose

Photo: John Brew

Prairie Rose, Wild Rose, Arkansas Rose

ROAR3 (Rosa arkansana)

Family: Rosaceae (Roses)
Size: 6 - 40 in (15 - 102 cm)
Growth: subshrub; perennial
Blooms: Jun 06 - Jul 28

Flower: simple; pink and white; 5 petals; 1 to 4 flowers typically form at and of new shoots; buds deeper pink than open flowers
Leaf: dicot; dark green, hairy, and with serrated edges; compound with 9 to 11 elliptical leaflets
Fruit: round berry-like fruit known as a rose hip with light brown seeds inside; clusters of rose hips remain on the plant throughout fall and winter

Status: native; common
Habitat: ponderosa --- prairies, roadsides, ditches
Typical location: Above Los Alamos

Individual Prairie Rose flowers only last a few day but are fragrant. The flowers only provide pollen, no nectar, to visiting insects. Insects and some mammals feed on the foliage; while some birds like the prairie chicken and quail feed on the rose hips. The plant which is covered with thorns, generally dies back to near the base each year due to freezing.

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Thimbleberry

Photo: Yvonne Keller

Thimbleberry

Photo: Craig Martin

Thimbleberry

Photo: tw61

Thimbleberry

RUPA (Rubus parviflorus)

Family: Rosaceae (Roses)
Size: up to 72 in (183 cm)
Growth: subshrub; perennial
Blooms: Jun 02 - Jul 17

Flower: simple; white with yellow center; large with 5 petals; terminal cluster with 3 to 7 flowers
Leaf: dicot; large, lobed like a maple leaf; fuzzy on both sides; turn gold to brown in fall
Fruit: red, hairy drupelet or aggregate fruit; looks similar to a raspberry

Status: native; locally common
Habitat: mixed conifer --- wooded hillsides, stream banks, canyons
Typical location: Valle Canyon

A thimbleberry is hollow, like a raspberry, so that one can fit it on the tip of a finger like a thimble, potential given the plant its common name. The fruit can be eaten fresh and makes a flavorful jelly but is rarely cultivated commercially as it is delicate. The young shoots of the plant can be eaten raw, and the leaves can be made into a tea for a wound treatment. Thimbleberry provides an important food source for ungulates, small mammals, and birds. The seeds are dispersed by animals.

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Davis Mountain Mock Vervain

Photo: annagypsy

Davis Mountain Mock Vervain

Photo: Craig Martin

Davis Mountain Mock Vervain, Desert Verbena, Wright's Verbena

GLWR (Glandularia wrightii)

Family: Verbenaceae (Verbena)
Size: 6 - 12 in (15 - 30 cm)
Growth: forb/herb; annual, perennial
Blooms: Mar 01 - Sep 30

Flower: simple; light to dark pink; narrow tube that opens abruptly into 5 notched lobes with 2 close together
Leaf: dicot; deeply lobed leaves at opposite intervals
Fruit: acorn-shaped seed

Status: native; common
Habitat: montane, mountain meadow --- semi-desert, foothills, woodlands
Typical location: Red Dot Trail

Plant has greenish-red stems that are covered in short hairs and square in cross-section. Stems are erect, though may lean at an angle when flowering. Flowers form round clusters.

Info    Photos   Distribution   
Hookedspur Violet

Photo: Krissa Klein

Hookedspur Violet

Photo: Craig Martin

Hookedspur Violet, Blue Violet, Hook Violet; Dog Violet

VIAD (Viola adunca)

Family: Violaceae (Violets)
Size: up to 12 in (30 cm)
Growth: forb/herb; perennial
Blooms: Apr 05 - Jul 12

Flower: simple; blue to purple; single flowers growing on long, thin stems; 5 petals; top 2 may have spurs
Leaf: dicot; heart-shaped; wavy margins
Fruit: hanging ovoid capsule with dark brown seeds

Status: native; common
Habitat: mixed conifer --- woodlands, montane, subalpine, alpine

Scores of flowering plants commonly cover large areas. Often hidden among taller grasses and plants.

Info    Photos   Distribution   
Canadian White Violet

Photo: Craig Martin

Canadian White Violet

Photo: Craig Martin

Canadian White Violet, Canada Violet

VICA4 (Viola canadensis)

Family: Violaceae (Violets)
Size: 8 - 16 in (20 - 41 cm)
Growth: forb/herb; perennial
Blooms: May 07 - Jul 12

Flower: simple; white and yellow, potentially streaked with other colors; bilaterally symmetrical; back of the petals may be more highly colored than front
Leaf: dicot; deep green; heart-shaped with rounded teeth
Fruit: oval capsule; initially green but turning brown when ripe

Status: native; common
Habitat: mixed conifer --- foothills, montane, woodlands

Often grows in clumps. The flowers are edible and can be used in a salad or tea. In contrast, other parts of the plant are poisonous.

Info    Photos   Distribution